定語從句_成人高考專升本(英語)核心考點

2019-08-16 小北 榮澤成考網
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  一、選準關系代詞和關系副詞
  在定于從句中,關系代詞或關系副詞都代替先行詞在從句中充當一定的成分,如果該從句中缺少主語、表語、賓語或定語,就要用關系代詞來連接從句;如果從句中缺少狀語,就得用關系副詞來連接從句。
  1. I still remember the days which/that we spent together.
  2. I still remember the days when we worked together.
  二、了解僅用that引導限制性定語從句的情況
  that 在限制性定語從句既可指人又可指物.在下列情況下,只能用that來引導定語從句。
  1. 先行詞是all, much, few, little, everything, anything, nothing等不定代詞是,如:Is there anything that you want to buy
  2. 先行詞被all, few, little, much, every, some, no等詞修飾或被the only, the very, the same, the last等限定詞修飾時。如:These are all the pictures that I have seen. This is the very dictionary that is of 指人great help.
  3. 先行詞既 指人又指物時。如:My father and his teacher talked a lot about the things and the persons that they could remember
  4. 關系代詞在定語從句中作表語時。如:Our school is not the one that it used to be.
  5. 先行詞被形容詞的最高級或序數詞修飾時。如:The first English novel that I read was A Tale of Two Cities.
  6. 主句是who 或which引導的特殊問句時。如:Who is the girl that is standing under the true Which is the machine that we used last Sunday
  三、把握“介詞+關系代詞”結構中介詞的選用
  介詞的選擇與住句中先行詞的搭配密切相關。如:That‘s the reason for which he was late for school. This is the book on which I spent 8 yuan.
  注意:定語從句中謂語動詞是含有介詞的動詞短語時,介詞應放在動詞之后,不能拆開放在關系代詞前。如:This is the key which you are looking for.  This is the baby whom you will look after.
  四、弄清as和which引導的非限制性定語從句的區別
  1. 位置上的區別:as 引導的非限制性定語從句的位置比較靈活,可以放在主句前,也可以放在主句后,還可插在 放在主句之后。“周所周知,地球圍繞太陽轉”。這句話可以有以下幾種表達方式(1)As is known to us all, the earth turns around the sun. (2) The earth, as is known to us all, turns around the sun. (3) The earth turns around the sun, as is known to us all. (4) The earth turns around the sun, which our parents once told us when we were very young.
  2. 詞義與聯系上的區別:as引導的非限制性定語從句與主句之間有著較為密切的上下文聯系,as 本身含有“正如”之意;而which引導的非限制性定語從句與主句之間在邏輯意義上近似并列句,which 本身表示“這”或“這一點”之意。如:Light travels faster than sound, as we all know. Jack came late for school, which made his teacher angry.
  五、注意定語從句的主謂一致性
  關系代詞在定語從句中作主語時,從句的謂語必須與先行詞保持人稱和數的一致。如:Tom is one of the boys who is from the USA
  六、保持主句的完整性
  1. 在定于從句中,不管出現任何情況,主句的結構必須完整,即主句必須有主語和謂語,缺一不可,否則,整個主從復合句就無法成立。試比較:
 ?。?)Is this factory_____ we visited last week
 ?。?) Is this the factory _______ we visited last week
  A. which    B. where     C. what    D. the one
  解析:第一道缺少表語,只有填D項才能保持主句的完整性,而其他的選項均為干擾項。第二題逐句本身完整,應填的關系代詞在從句中作visited的賓語,故應選A項。
  2. 在定語從句中,關系代詞或關系副詞已經代替先行詞獨立地或與相應的介詞一起在定語從句中充當了一定的成分,因此在定語從句中就不能再出現于關系代(副)詞重疊的成分。如:Is this the train that they took it last Sunday (錯句)分析:該題中that已經代替先行詞the train 在定語從句中充當及物動詞took的賓語,故重疊出現的賓語it必須刪去。